Spiral separator and method of separating materials



Y Dec, A8 w23. MNM-9 F. PARDEE .SPIRAL SEPARATOR AND METHQD ORSEPARATINQ MATERIALS 4 shams-sheet 1 `Filed March 28. IN V EN TOR. FWN K Fai/m55 A 'TORNEY. Een., i8 M923. 319477,64@ F. PARDEE SPIRAL SEPARATOR AND METHOD OF SEPAEATING MATERIALS Filed March 28. 1922 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVLNTOR. EFH/wf /DH/Ppff N1 Z A By @.@QLWDM A T ORNE Y. Dec, 18 T923. Lf@ F. PARDEE SPIRAL SEPARATOR AND METHQD OF SEPARATING MATERIALS Filed March 2s. 1922 4 sneets-sneet- 5 j I NTOR. ,2% FWN/ff Pff/@Q55 QTTORNEY. D@ i8, m23. 11,47%@ F. PARDEE SFIRAL SEPARATOR ND METHOD 0F SEPARATING MATERIALS Filed March 28. 1922 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 IN VEN TOR. RNEY, ramas use. is, ieee. unirse stares ARATOR COMPANY, A CORPORATION yGF PENNSYLVANA. SPIRL SEPARATORVAND METHOD OF SEPARATNG MATERLS.' Application filed March 28, 1922. Serial No. 547,451. To ZZ whom, it may concern.' Be it known that I, FRANK Parona, a citizen of the United States, and 'resident ot Hazleton, Pennsylvania, have invented certain new -and'useful Improvements' in Spiral Separatore and Methods of Separating Materials, of which the Vfollowing is a specification. i This invention relates to separators and aims to provide means and a method whereby` fluid pressure can be utilized to assist in. theseparation of materials having different inherent characteristics. One object of the invention is to provide an improved method for separating materials. Another object is to provide means for ejccting jets of steam, air or other fluid from a runway to cause a better and more rapid separation of materials than is at taiiiable in separators heretofore constructed. Another object is to provide a spiral separator ofmuch shorter length than those heretofore used yet capable .of effecting a thorough separation of diii'erent classes of materials; v Another object is to provide a spiral separator having a lclliamber or chambers beneath the surface `ofthe runway from which steam or other fluid canbe dischai'ged to assist in the separation of the materials bein g handled. A further object is to combine and organize the various instrumentalities herein described sothat they individually and jointly perform-the functions set forth. Other objects .will be apparent from the following specification when read in connection with the accompanying drawings in which- Fig. l illustrates in vertical section one embodiment of the invention. The section is taken on the staggered line l 1 of Fig. il; Fig. Q is a 'trout elevation of the separator ot' Fig. l on a' smaller scale; Fig. 3 is a` plan of Fig. 1' with parts shown in horizontal section; Fig, l isan enlarged section onthe line stmt of Fig. l illustrating the action of the fluid jets in an exaggerated manner; ' Fig. 5 is an enlarged section on the line 5 5 of Fig. t; l 1 Fig. G is aplan showing an alternative construction and Fig. 7 is a view illustrating details of construction; Figs.v 8, 9 and l0 are details showing modifications. Heretofore spiral separators have usually been built of considerable height having several convolutions and as the material liowed along the runway centrifugal torce and'friction causedthe materialsto follow in distinct paths. llllheii handling a mixture of coal'aiid slate and other impurities the coal being brighter and smoother than the slate gradually works toward an outer path on the runway and the slate and impurities having greater Jrictional qualities travel in an innerpath. But in order to secure an effective separation it has heretofore been necessary to employ spiral runways of considerable length having several turns or convolutions. ln my improved separator .El utilize a novel method whereby thelength of the spiral runway is.considerably reduced and yet an effective separation of materials is secured. The presentimprovement consists broadly in providing means and a method utilizing a fluid to assist in the separation of the materials being handled. In the apparatus illustrated the separator comprises a spiral runway of approximately one full turn, although one of a trac-tion of a turn, -or one having more than 'one turn could also be used, the runway is provided with means for ejecting jets of Huid to exert a lifting or pushing action or both a. lifting and pushing action on the umaterial to give it an impetus to augment' the separating action due'v to centrifugal force. My improved method can be carried out in many different structures. panying drawings show different forms of apparatus embodying novel features but it is to be understood that l am not limited to such structures except as defined in the subjoined claims. f f Referring first to Figs. l. to 5, l() represents a hollow column supported. on a suitable base l2 and connected at thetop with a truste-conical tubular head "12. The head is carried by a cap i3 secured to the top of thel column, said cap carrying supporting brackets l5 which are riveted or otherwise fastened to the head. Near the top of the head 12 is located ay pipe 14 forming an annular conduit which is connected byv a pipe The accomy 16 to a source of fluid supply. The pipe 14 is provided with aseries of outlets 18 lhollow column through a suitable inlet pipe 17 having a control valve 18 as shown in Fig.v 8, or may provide an installation as .hereinafter described and shown in Fig., 6, wherein the fluid is introduced' through a pipe following the general direction of the outer edge'or periphery of the runway. 'In the structures of Figs. 6 anil 8 the fluidA used is air which is preferable on ac? count of the comparatively low cost of supplying it to -the separator, although I- ain. not limited tothe use of any particular kind of fluid, in any of the structures shown or described. " rIhe column in Figs. 1 to,5 carries a plurality of rods 20 which extend outward and upward from the column to`sup'- port the separator runway. The runway is formed with an upper wall 22 and a lower wall 24 spaced apart by the supportingl rods` 20 to form a. series of segmental chambers 264 between said walls. At the peripheral edge the chambers 26 are closed by a spiral bar 28 to which the plates formingv the walls 22 and 26 are bolted or otherwise i secured. The upper wall'22 is formed of a corrugatedand the plates between them' `are smooth. These plates are secured at suitable intervals to the radial rods 20` byy i5 28.. vThe vplates 38V forming the lower wall series of substantially triangular plates which overlap along their adjacent edges. 'As shown particularly in Figs. 1 and 3 the alternate plates .30 of, the upper wall are bolts 34 or other suitable means, and a-re also secured -by bolts' 36 to the outer spiral rod of the runway 24 overlap along their adja- -cent edges as shown in F ig. 4 and are similarly securedto the radial rods 2O bybolts 40. The column 10 has formed thereinia I 'series of ports 42 arrangedin spiral formation to communicate with the several chambers 26 so thatthe fluid-can pass through `the center of the column and into several. segmental chambers. The arrangement is such that fluid can be discharged through the ports'44 formed between the corruga- 4tions between the pla-tesv 30 and Ithe over-v lappiir'g smooth plates 32 as indicated in Fig. 4.V 'Ihe corrugations may either be of uniform height and width .or they may be of varying heights andwidths sc as to provide outlet portsfof var i'nof areas alongdierent points vin the widt of the runway. Lari/gere in such cases I corrugate the plates as shown in Fig. 7V wherein the plate 30 is'formed so that the corrugations near the inner portion ai'e comparatively low. and near the' outer portion l'are much higher, thereby forinin i' )Orts-44 havin@F a greater area nearthe outer surfacev of the runway, thus providing means whereby a larger volume'of fluid can bedischarged iii this zone of the separator. In this figure I also show an alternative form of plate 32 which' is provided with a groove 33 adapted to convey any water or other condensate downwardly and inwardly toward the center of the runway. ' Near the upper end of the spiral runway and secured along the outer edge is an upstanding flange 46 adapted to'prevent the mixture which is orginally fed to the runway from skimming offithe outer edge: thereof. Below' the separator runway is secured a conveyor thread 48 having sub` 'stantially the same pitch as the separator runway and being provided with an outei' flange 50. This conveyor is adapted to catch the. purer grade of material which is thrown from' .the separator runway as hereinafter referred to. In Fig. 6 IAhave illustrated an alternative arrangement Which lis constructed substantially the saine asl thel abovedescribed apparatus with the exception that the central supporting column-10 is solid'and the fluid is supplied to the chambers 26 from a spiral `pipe 52 havinga series of ports 54 formed `therein which communicate with the several chainbers`26. 'The pipe 52 is connected to a pipe.56 whichvleads'to a suitable source of supply. 'Ihe pipe 52also forms the closure .for the outer ends of the chambers 26. IIhe lower end of the pipe -52 is closed by a, suitable'plu 53. In vF ig. 8 have shown a structure in which the air or other fluid is fed directly tothe hollow column A10- from a pipe 17 andV through ports 42 to the chamber 2T. Fluid is also supplied to a spiral pipe 5 3 which is provided with portsV 55-openiug into the chamber 27. In this structure the plates 30 are corrugated similar to those of Fig. l1- but the alternate plates 33 are perforated as at 35 to permit the fluid 'to flou; from the bottom practically stra-ight up. The jets issuing from the ports 44 will exert a combined pushin'g and .lifting action on the i material as it falls over the edges of thek rac/ases plate 30, and the jetsissuing from the perforations 35 will exert a lift-ingaction thus tending to reduce the friction betwecnrthe material and the runway. The perforavtions 35 may be more or less numerous or of greater or less area at different locations on the surface of the runway to.suit practical requirements. Fig. 9 is a fragmentary view showing a separator having a runway in which all the jets issue upwardly through ports`35"L so that the action on the material is more in in the nature of a lift than a` push. The runway neednot necessarily be supported on rods located between 'the upper and lower walls thereof for it is not absolutely essential that the space between the walls be divided into several separate chambers. lf desired the runway could be carried on rods located belowthe lower wall 24 as will be i readily appreciated, and the chamber fornr erA ed between the upper and lower walls could be continuous from one endto-the other of the runway. Or the chamber between the upper and lower walls could be divided 'by any suitable sort of partition and connected by suitable piping with an outside supply of `fluid independent of the runway structure all as will be understood. p ln Fig. is illustrated a detail showing an alternative form of runway construction. In this figure the upper wall of the runway is formed of segmental supporting` plates 33a which are secured to the radial rods 20. These plates are perforated as shown, and are used as supports for the corrugated plates and the smooth plates 32a which are secured thereto in any suitable manner. This arrangement permits of the use of very thin `material for the corrugated plates as the lower segmental plates take the strains and the corrugated plates form ports which control the direction'in which the fluid is discharged and alsoform a renewable surface for the runway. It is clear that in Athis form of runway the fluid` from the chamber 26a escapes through'the perforations 33h and is discharged through the ports formed by the corrugations in the plates 30a. The apparatus illustrated is particularly adapted to separate coal from slate and other impurities but of course is not limited to such use. In operation a mixture of coal and slate and other impurities is fedfrom a suitably supported inc'ined chute 58 to the upper end of the separator runway 22. And as the mixture travels down the runway, due partly to centrifugal. action and frictional characteristics of the coal and slate respectively, andpartly to the action of the fluid discharged from the runway, the purer coal works toward an outer path on the runway, the slate being comparatively heavier and-exerting a greater friction on the runway, travels more slowly and works toward an inner path. As each piece of material passes over an opening or port lil-in the runway, the frictional resistance lisovercome to a certain degree by the'jets of flu'idd'ischarged which tend to lift and push the material. Thus it is apparent that the fluid exerts a force which verymateria'ly aids in the rapid separation of the materials. l The coal which is comparatively lighter is given anadd'ed impetus so that its tendency to travel toward the outer edge of the runway is increased, according to the shape of each individual piece` thus automatically taking care of cubes and flats or other fractures, The action on the slate and other heavier impurities is more in the nature of a gentle push and lift so that its friction is reduced and due to its greater specific gravity it tends to travel inward. it being remembered that the surface of the runway is inclined downwardly and inwardly.- v l The fluid issuing from the multiplicity of ports along the runway assumes a whirling or rotary motion due to the spiral pitch and the inward anddownward pitch of the run- 'way. In other wordsthe fluid jets forni sort of a spiral vortex which travels in the same general direction as the material on the runway. The fluid in the outer zone of the whirl or ,vortex travels faster than the fluid in the inner Zone due partly to centrifugal action and partly to the difference in the angle at which the jets strike the inwardly inclined surface of the runway. This whirling spiral or helical movement of lthe fluid exerts a powerful force on the material being separated and enables a much faster and better separation than that obtainable in separators heretofore used. By increasing or decreasing the volume of fluid discharged from the runway the efficiency of the separator can be varied. Or the volume of fluid can be varied to correspond to the class of material being handled. llVhen the mixture to be separated is fed wet, the jets issuing from the runway wil'` effectively dry the materials and prevent the smaller wet particles from stickingto and clogging the runway. The purer coalv is thrown oli the .outer edge of the separator runway and is caught by the conveyor thread 48 which carries it to a suitable chute, not shown, leading to. a storage pile or bin. The coal which travels along the outer portion of the separator runway is also of high grade and is discharged to a suitable chute. not shown, atl the end of the separator, and thc slate and impurities which' travel along the extreme inner path are'similarly discharged to a waste pile or bin. ' Thpugh ll have describedavith great particularity the'details of the embodiments of iis y 'arated travels by gravity, means for supthe invention herein illustrated it is not to be interpreted that I am limited thereto, the' invention being thought to be broadly new. Therefore changes may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the invention as defined in the appended claims. lVhat Ifclaim is: 1. In a separator a runway'over which the material to 'be separated travels land means for supplying fluid pressure' to exert a lifting and pushing action on said material to accelerate its travel at numerous points along the runway. 2. lIna sepaiator a spiral runway over which the material to be separated travels and means for discharging a fluid along the surface ot' said runway to exert a force on the material to aid in the separation thereof. 3. In a separator a spiral runway and means for discharging fluid jets from the runway in the general direction ofr travel of the material over the surface thereof.. tfIn a separator a spiral runway and means for discharging a fluid therefrom at a multiplicity of points along the runway to assist in the separation of the-material traveling on the runway. 5. In a separator a spiral runway and meansfor utiliaing fluid pressure at different points along the runway for accelerating the speed of `the material travelingon the runway. 6. In a'separator a spiralrunway and means for exerting a fluid pressure .on the material to be separated tending to hold it outward fromthe center. 7. In a separator a spiral runway in come bination with means for effecting a separat# ingaction by exerting direct fluid pressure on the material in the proper direction. A 8. A friction separator in combination with means for exerting a fluid pressure at a multiplicity of points to assist in the` Separation throughout a considerable length-of the separator. 9. A stationary spiral separator over which thel material travels by gravity and lmeans for removing water from the material handled by exposure to an' currents discharged from different points 'along the spiral runway. 10. In a spiralsepa'rator a runwayovei" which the materialv to be separated travels b Y oravit having a series ofoutlet Orts and meansfor dischargmg a fluid through said ports to form a vortex to assist in the separation of' the material traveling on the runway.i 1 1. 'A runway over which thematerialto be sep- Jl ino' air to said chambered runwa and llt thev material traveling thereon. separator having a chambered spiral raf/mafie ber and means for discharging said air tov exert a pushing action on the material traveling down the runway and to assist in the separation of said material. 13. In a separator a spiral runway and ports for discharging fluidjets from said runway to exert a pushing and liftingaction' on the materials traveling thereon, certain of said ports being of such area that a greater volume of fluid is discharged from certain portions of the runway than at other portions: ' let. In a separator a chambered spiral'runway having a series of outlet ports arranged transversely at different'. locations along the runway and adapted to direct a. fluid sub-' stantially in the direction -of the, line 'of' travel of the material on said runway, the ports in each series being spaced closer together near the outer portion of therunway than near the inner portion so that the greater volume of fluid is discharged' in the outer zone of the runway. 'Y l 15.' 'A separator over which the material travels by gravity comprising a spiral runway havmg upper and lower walls lspaced apart from! each other, divisions between said walls forming a vplurality of separate chambers, a series of outlet ports fordirecting the flow of fluid from each of said. chambers, and means for supplying uid to said chambers. A - 16. A separator comprising a spiral runway having upper 'and lower walls spaced apart-` from" each other, divisions between said walls forming a plurality of sepa.- rate chambers, a hollow central supporting Y column Jfor said runway having ports connecting with said chambers, means for supupper'runway wall having portions shaped to form outlet` ports for the Huid. 17. A separator-comprising al Aspiral run-i way having upper 'and lower walls spaced y column for said runway having. ports conn ecting with said chamberspan 'upwardly and outwardly flared intake connected to Said column, means for directing a series. o jf jets of 'fluid downwardly through said intake So as to draw in a volume of air, portionspof-said upper wall of said runway bein(T corrugated to form outlet ports for "the llui 18. A separator comprisingja spiral runway having upper and lower wallsspaced apart from each other, a hollow column, out wardly extending' rods carried by said column for supporting the runway and dividing the space between said walls into a CII tarmac y 51* plurality ot separate chambers7 means v'for supplying a [luid to said chambers and means tor discharging-said iluid along the runway to exert a pressure on the material traveling on the runway and to impart an impetus thereto. lf). A spiral separator includinga runway formed of upper and lower walls spaced apart Jfrom each other, means tor'supplyingfluid to the chamber between said walls, the upper wall ot said runway including corrugated plates over which the material travels and forming ports throughwhich the fluid is discharged so that as the material travels over the edges or" said plates said material is subjected to the action of said fluid and its speed is accelerated thereby. 20. A separator including a spiral runway comprising an upper wallr'ormed of alternately arrangedv corrugated and smooth plates and a lower wall spaced away from said upper wall, a hollow supporting column haring outwardly and upwardly extending rods secured thereto and located between said upper and lower walls and forming partitions which divide the runway into a plurality of chambers said hollow column being formed with ports communicating with said chambers, and said corrugated plates forming ports communicating with said chambers and means for supplying fluid pressure to Said hollow column. 21. The method of separating materials which consists in subjecting said materials to centrifugal torceand them to iuid pressure to au lojment the cen trite ugal action and thereby increase their` rate of travel. 22. The method separating materials which consists in subjecting said materials to centrifugal separating torce on a spiral runway and discharging" :duid jets alone the runway to exert an additional separating action on said materials. 23. rlhe method ot separating materials which consists in feeding; said materials to Aa spiral runway and discharging jets ot fluid at a plurality of points alongl the runwayto accelerate the speed of said materials and to exert a lifting action thereon to decrease the rictional resistance between the material and the runway. 24. 'll`he method of separating; materials which consists in subjecting' said materials to the action of a volume of whirling fluid on a spiral runway to increase the rate ot travel ot said materials. 25. The method of separating' materials which consists in subjecting` said materials to centrifugal force on a spiral separator and subjecting said materials to the action of a volume ot fluid having a whirling spiral motion to augment the separating action. lin witness whereof, l have hereunto signed my name. y rei-tuitemanan also Subj ectingl b Lili



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