Apparatus for conserving gas, oil, and other fluids



0st. 23, 11923. BAWZfifiQ J. B. KNlGHT APPARATUS FOR CONSERVING GAS, OIL, AND OTHER FLUIDS Filed Nov. 7. 1921 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 Oct. 23, 1923. 11,472,009 J. B. KNIGHT APPARATUS FOR CONSERVING GAS, OIL, AND OTHER FLUIDS J. B. KNIGHT APPARATUS FOR CONSERVING GAS, OIL, AND OTHER FLUIDS Filed Nov. 7. 1921 6 Sheets-Sheet a Oct. 23, 1923. 1,4720% J. B. KNIGHT APPARATUS FOR CONSBRVING GAS, OIL, AND OTHER FLUIDS Filed Nov. 7. 1921 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 Ma a TIAWZMDQ Oct. 23, 1923. J B. KNIGHT APPARATUS FOR CONSERVING GAS, OIL, AND OTHER FLUIDS Filed Nov. '7. 1.921 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 0st. 23 R923. 1,4 72,0w J. B. KNIGHT APPARATUS FOR CONSERVING GAS, OIL, AND OTHER FLUIDS Filed Nov. 7. 1921 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Patented Get. 23%, N23. UNTTEID STATES tar/acne JAMES BRUCE KNIGHT, OF EL PASO, TEXAS. APPARATUS FOR. CONSERVING GAS, OIL, AND OTHER FLUITJS. Application filed November 7, 1921. Serial No. 513,576. T 0 all whom it may concern: Be it known that I, JAMES B. KNIGHT, a citizen of the United States, residin at El Paso, in the county of El Paso and State of Texas, have invented a new and useful Apparatus for Conserving Gas, Oil, and ()ther Fluids, of which the following is a specification. I This invention relates to an apparatus designed primarily for use in connection with gas and oil wells and may properly be termed a compound open circuit system whereby wild flows of natural gas from large gas wells can be diverted to .oil wells of contiguous properties which can thus be operated under natural pressure of the gas that would otherwise be wasted. A further object is to provide a novel arrangement of pipe lines by means of which an interchange of gas can be eflected between any two or more contiguous wells so that the operator can apply any excessive gas from any onewell to the operation of bringing oil from those wells in which the gas has been depleted to such an extent that the use of a pump'would otherwise be necessary. A still further object is to provide apparatus of this character which leaves the wells open and unobstructed at all times, there being no moving parts or valves to impede the passage of the fluid either from natural flow or from gas or air forced into the well. I A. still further object is to provide apparatus which not only permits the use of natural gas pressure distributed to one or more wells but also allows the use of a compressor whereby air may be utilized as the expelling medium should there be insuflicient gas pressure at hand to produce the desired lifting action. A further object is to provide apparatus which will recover casing-headgas from the natural gas used to bring the oil to the surface, a gas separator being provided from which dry gas can be forced back intothe original pressure line to be again used, it being designed to indicate by the use of meters any loss of gas due to leakage. A still further object is to provide an apparatus which can be cleaned readily. Another ob-ject is to provide apparatus all ,parts of which with but two or three excep tions, are made of standard equipment such as usually carried by a well supply house. With the foregoing and other objects in view which will appear as the description proceeds,the invention resides in the combination and arrangement of parts and in the details of construction hereinafter described and claimed, it being understood that, within the scope of what is claimed, changes in the precise embodiment of the invention shown can be madewithout departing from the spirit of the invention. in the accompanying drawings the preferred forms of the invention have been shown. In said drawings Figure l is a plan View showing the complete apparatus, said View being somewhat in diagram. Figure 2 is v a central vertical section through the lower portion of the shell, casing, and adjacent parts in one well of the system. Figure 3 is a central vertical section through the casing head and those parts combined therewith. Figure 4 is a section on line 44, Figure 2. Figure 5 is a section on line 5-5, Figure 2. v Figure 6 is a sectionon line 66, Figure 2. I Figure 7 is a view of a portion of the casing head and parts adjacent thereto and showing the bypass. Figure 8 is a central vertical section through another form of casing head and adjacent parts, showing the by-pass arrangement. Figure 9 is a view partly in longitudinal section and partly in elevation of a modified arrangement for forcing fluid in an inclined or horizontal casing. Referring to the figures by characters of reference 1 designates a main or supply line for conducting gas pressure from a Well or a gasline, the same bein provided with a gas regulator indicated 1n diagram at 2. Extending from this main line is a manifold 3 provided near its point of connection with the main line with a gas meter at. A valve 5 may be arranged in the manifold between themeter and a branch pipe 6 extending from an air compressor station located generally at 7. A branch pipe 8 may be extended from the main line 1 to the air compressor station and can, in turn, be connected to a gas purifier agitator indicated at 9, through which gas can be delivered to a storage tank 10 where it can be retained for commercial or domestic purposes. Extending from the manifold 3 are distributing lines 11 each of which is extended used for commercial or domestic purposes. The separator is also in communication through a pipe 18 with a plant 19 for the /recovery of casing-head gasoline and from this plant'cxtends a pipe line 20 which opens into the main line 1 and has a valve 21 and a gas meter 22. A gas purifier agitator 23 can/be connected to the pipe line 20 between valve 21 and meter 22. a Each connection between a distributing line 11 and the adjacent discharge line 15 is extended into a well, the specific apparatus constituting such connection being illustrated in detail-in Figures 2 to 7 inclusive. Each well is provided with the usual casing 24 on which is mounted a head 25. Through this head is extended an injector line 26 which extends downwardly within the casing so as to form a tubular thimble shaft the lower end of which is exteriorly screw threaded as at 27 and is closed by a metal plug 28. Openings 29 are formed withinthis tubular shaft close to and above the plug. A coupling sleeve 30 engages the threaded lower end of thetubular shaft 26 and supports a nipple 31 formed of pipe the lower end of which is closed by a screw cap 32. The upper portion of the coupling 30 is exteriorly screw threaded and projects into and engages the lower end of a tubular shell 33 spaced from and concentric with the tubular shaft 26 and extending upwardly to a point adjacent the top of the casing 24 and close to or below the bottom of the head 25. The well tubing 34 surrounds and is spaced from the shell 33, the upper end of the tubing being seated in the top of the casing head 25 where it communicates with arranged in the by-pass. Pipe 38 communicates with the distributing line 11. The lower portion of the tubing 34 is engaged by a sleeve 41 the lower portion of which is interiorly screw threaded to engage the upper end of a nipple 42 the intermediate portion of which is tapered as at 43 and merges into an exteriorly screw threaded end portion 44 engaged by a coupling 45 attached to a tube 46 surrounding the cap 32. Mounted on the sleeve 41 is a ring 47 provided with spaced slots and extending through this ring are tie bolt-s or rods 48 the lower ends of which are mounted within another ring 49 arranged below the coupling 45 and also having spaced slots. The slots in the upper ring have been indicated at 50 while the slots in the lower ring have been indicated at 51. The rods or bolts 48 extend along the outer surface of a cylindrical screen 52 referably formed of sheet metal having a p urality of openings. Openings'53 are formed in the upper portion of the nipple 42 so that fluid passing through the screen can enter the nipple and thus flow upwardly around the shell 33 and within the tubing 34. As shown in Figure 2 the tapered portion 43 of the nipple 42 constitutes a seat for the lower end of the shell 33. Assuming that the wells comprising the series 12, 13 and 14 do not have suflicient gas pressure to bring the oil to the surface,- gas piped from a large contiguous well or gas from a pressure-main can be directed into the main line 1 and can be diverted to the manifold 3 and thence to the casing heads of those wells to be operated. The gas is directed through the by-pass 37 and thence through pipes 36 into the space between the casing 24 and the tubing 34. The pressure on the liquid thus produced will force the liquid through the screen 52 and thence through openings 53 upwardly into the tubing 34 and around the shell 33. -To augment this action a supplemental amount of gas is delivered to the injector line or thimble shaft 26 which, escaping through the openings 29 into the lower portion of the shell. will flow upwardly between the shaft 26 and the shell -33. The gas thus delivered mixes thoroughly withthe fluid in the shell and is so thoroughly mixed with the fluid that the pressure of the gas will be distributed evenly therethrough and the mixture of oil and gas will pass outwardly through the pipe 35 to the discharge line. The mixture of fluid and gas thus elevated will be separated at 16 and the gas will be directed back into the main line '1 while the fluid will be treated in the plant 19. Should there be a surplus amount of gas in one or more of the wells in the series; such surplus can be drawn oflv through the pipe 36, the by-pass being closed so that ressure will be admitted solely to the in: jector line or thimble shaft 26. Instead of providing a casing head such as has been illustrated inFigure 3 a structure such as shown in Figure 8 may be used. In this arrangement a 'l' 54 is supported in a suitable manner by a sand plate 55 secured on the casing head 56 and the injected line or thimble shaft 57 is extended downwardly through the T while the tubing 5'( is fastened in the T and extends through the sand plate.' The casing 58 is attached to the'head 56 and said head is connected by a pipe 59 to a by-pass 60 communicating with the pressure pipe .61, these parts being all arranged as in .the form heretofore described. The fluid discharge line communi eating with the interior or the tubing has been indicated at62. An outlet pipe 63 for use when cleaning the well, extends from the casing head. It might be stated at this time that when it is desired to clean the. well steam or other suitable cleaning medium is directed through the pipe 62 and will flow downwardly within the well, escaping therefrom through the pipe 63. The parts 26, 28, 30 and 33 constitute what is termed a thimble' and the tapered portion 43 of. the nipple 42 constitutes a seat or rest for the thimble'. This thimble can be adjusted to handle the dififerent grades of oil with regard to their respective specitic gravities and viscosities. avoid the necessity of providinga thimble of a difi'erent size for each diflerent grade of oil or other fluid it has been found that the same apparatus can be used by varying the length thereof to adapt it to liquids of different viscosities. Tests have shown that the same volume of fluid of one specific gravity can be forced through a channel or pipe of a certain length and under a stated pressure in the same length of time that a similar volume of fluid of another specific gravity can be forced through a channel or pipe under the same pressure and in the same length of time provided the channel or pipe is lengthenedor shortened to a degree sufiicient to meet the conditions. Thus in the present case the thimble made up of the parts herein referred to can be lengthened or shortened within the well to adapt it to the specific gravity of the fluid to be elevated and it thus becomes unnecessary to provide thimbles of different proportions or to changethe sizes of the orifices. 18y providing a screen such as has been described the hardest service can be withstood and, as there are no valves in the well the openings in the screen can be large enough to allow a large quantityot sand to p n order to. be carried out with the oil without settling around the ports and otherwise interfering with the action of the apparatus. The principles herein described can be utilized in horizontal Work such as transferring oil in pipe lines, and the like. An arrangement of arts for this purpose has been illustrated in Figure 9 wherein the injector line or thinible shaft has been indicated at 64 and forms part of a thimble made up of a shell 65, a tapered nipple 66 and an extension 67. These are supported within an enlarged casing68 of the line-69 by means of rings 70. The action of this apparatus is the same as'that already described, th pressure applied to the contents of the line from the large end of the thimble serving to facilitate or boost the flow as will be apparent. Although gas from a contiguous well can be directed into the apparatus for the purposes hereinbefore described, natural pressure being used, it is to be understood that if necessary gas can be forced into the system under pressure or air under pressure can be utilized for getting the desired lift, mg action. By providing the two meters at 4 and 22 the operator can determine the amount of gas taken from the main line and the amount returned thereto, thus readily determining the amount of waste or leakagethat has occurred in the operation of the wells. What is claimed is v 1. In apparatus of the class described the combination with a casing and tubing therein, of a casing head having an orifice for re ceiving gas under pressure to direct it between the casing and tubing to elevate liquid within the tubing, a screen through which liquid is forcedwhen flowing from the easing to the tubing,'a tapered nipple supported by the tubing and within the screen, and a thimble seated within the nipple and including a. tubular shell, a tubular shaft within and spaced from the shell, said shaft being closed at its lower end, means for closing the space between the lower ends of the shell and shaft. said shaft having a gas port adjacent *its closed end opening into the shell, and means for directing gas under pressure into the shaft, said tube terminating at its upper end below the upper end of the tubing. 2. In apparatus of the class described the combination with a casing and a head thereon, of tubing supported within the casing and having a fluid outlet, a tapered nipple supported from the lower end of the tubing and having openings therein, a shell sup* ported by the nipple and within and spaced from the tubing, the upper end of the shell. being located'below the upper end of. the tubing. a tubular shaft within and spaced from the shell nd communicating therewith adjacent its lower end, said shell and shaft. beingelosed at their lower ends, apressure line, and means for directing pressure from "said line into either or both the casing and the tubular shaft,.said means including an communicating with the tubing at th upper end. thereof, a tapered nipple suspended fronithe lowerfend of the tubing and having apertures, a sand screen suspended from the tubing and surrounding the nipple, a shell seated on the nipple and supported. within and spaced from the tubing, said shell-terminating at its upper end below the fluid outlet,a hollowshaft-closed at its lower end-a"nd. supported within the shell, said shaft having an outlet adjacent its lower end for directing gas into the shell, said shell being closed at its lower end, a pre$ure line opening into the upper end of the tubular shaft, arid a valved by-pass extending from the pressure line and opening into the space between the casing and tubing, said by-pass including a valvedloutlet for surplus gas pressure. I 4. In apparatus of the class described the combination with a casing head, of tubing suspended therefrom and having a fluid outlet, a tapered, nipple below the tubing, a sleevecoupling th nipple to the tubing, a thimb'le supported/by the nipple Within the tubing and including a shell and a tubular shattclosed at their lower ends and communicating adjacent said ends, a ring mounted on the sleeve, a second ring below the nipple, said rin s having arcuate slots, an apertured' cylin rical. member mounted between the rings and constituting a sand screen and bolts outside of the screen and engaging the ringsto bind them upon the screen. In testimony that I claim'the foregoing as my. own, I have hereto affixed my signature in the presence of two witnesses. JAMES BRUCE KNIGHT. Witnesses: CHAS. Gr. WILFONG, H. S. HAmus.



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    US-4027731-AJune 07, 1977Otisca Industries, Ltd.Methods of and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery